The agreement supports the arrangements for the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union and Euratom (Article 1), provides a clear definition of the territorial scope of the United Kingdom (Article 3) and guarantees the legal responsibility of the agreement (Article 4). In addition, it states that, until the end of the transition period, the United Kingdom will be refused access to `all networks, information systems and databases established on the basis of Union law` (Article 8). The UK submitted its withdrawal notice to the EU on 29 March 2017. This triggered a withdrawal procedure within the meaning of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. Negotiations ended on 17 October 2019. The Withdrawal Agreement provides for a transition period until the 31st. December 2020, in which the UK will remain in the single market to ensure smooth trade until a long-term relationship is agreed. If no agreement is reached by that date, the UK will leave the single market on 1 January 2021 without a trade agreement. A non-binding political declaration on the future relationship between the EU and the UK is closely linked to the Withdrawal Agreement. The Protocol on Gibraltar shall apply until the end of the transitional period, with the exception of the provisions on citizens` rights, which shall continue thereafter.
The Protocol covers the preparation of the application of the civil rights part of the Withdrawal Agreement and allows for the application of EU law at Gibraltar airport if the United Kingdom and Spain agree on this point; establishes cooperation between Spain and the United Kingdom in tax, environmental protection and fisheries matters, as well as in police and customs matters. The Memoranda of Understanding between the United Kingdom and Spain facilitate cooperation between the competent authorities of Gibraltar and Spain at the labour level, in particular through the deployment of joint committees in the areas of citizens` rights, the environment, police, customs and tobacco. Part 1 of the Withdrawal Agreement contains so-called “common provisions”. They define its territorial scope, the main definitions and how the Withdrawal Agreement (and in particular its LEGAL content of the EU) is to take effect in the UK. An important difference from the draft Withdrawal Agreement of March 2018 is that Article 4 clarifies that the entire Withdrawal Agreement (and not just the second part on citizens` rights) should be directly effective in the UK, where its provisions are clear, concise and unconditional. .